Terms

basis

Die in die einzelnen Felder eingegebenen Daten stammen - je nachdem, ob es sich um Inschriften im älteren fuþark, Inschriften im jüngeren fuþąrk/fuþork, Inschriften im anglo-friesischen fuþorc oder um Runica Manuscripta handelt - aus unterschiedlichen Quellen. Ein Quellenverzeichnis finden Sie hier. In der Regel wurden die Daten den unten stehenden Eingabemodalitäten angepasst. In einigen wenigen Feldern (Transliteration, Übersetzung) wurden Daten unverändert aus anderen Quellen übernommen. Diese Einträge sind mit ©️ markiert. Fanden sich in den verwendeten Quellen widersprüchliche oder keine Informationen zu einzelnen Feldern oder war es nicht möglich die Feldinhalte den Eingabemodalitäten in der vorgesehenen Weise anzupassen, gibt es hierzu ggf. Angaben im Kommentarbereich.

Kerndaten zum Fund

Heading

The commonly used name of the runic object is displayed as the main heading of the fact sheet in the form: "findspot, object"

To distinguish inscriptions on identical objects from the same findspot the commonly used additions are also given, such as Arabic or Roman numerals or letters, e.g. "1" (Vimose Chape 1) or "A" (Weimar Bow brooch A).

For the Runica Manuscripta the siglum of the runic entry is given as the main heading.

Names

If the commonly used name of an inscription deviates from the pattern "findspot, object", it is given in small print below the main heading, e.g. "Franks Casket".

If an inscription is known under different names or if there are names which were used in older publications, they can be given here, too, as well as alternative/older spellings.

If different numberings for an inscription are used in different publications, the most common of these is used for the main heading. Alternative or older numberings are listed in small print below the heading, e.g. "Vester Marie-stenen IV" for the "Vestermarie, Stone 1".

For the Runica Manuscripta names of codices can be given, e.g. "Codex Frisianus".

Sigla

The sigla of the runic inscription/the runic entry. The main siglum is in bold type.

The sigla are given in the form used in other databases (Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Danske Runeindskrifter etc.) and in the relevant standard editions.

Some of the sigla vary only slightly in their use of blank spaces, capital letters and minuscules or further additions, e.g. "IK 129,2", "DR IK129,2" (siglum in Samnordisk runtextdatabas) and "SJy IK129,2" (siglum in Danske Runeindskrifter) for the Darum (IV) bracteate.

For the Runica Manuscripta the siglum of the manuscript and the leaf of the runic entry is provided. In the case of several entries on the same page, each entry receives a distinct number in square brackets.

For new finds or inscriptions not yet published in standard editions, author, year and page of the first publication are cited instead.

The sigla for the inscriptions in the Anglo-Frisian fuþorc were specially developed for the RuneS database.

The most common siglum of the runic inscription is used as the main siglum. For the Danish inscriptions these are the sigla in Danske Runeindskrifter, for the Swedish and Norwegian inscriptions the sigla in Samnordisk runtextdatabas (version 3.1), for the bracteates the sigla in Ikonographischer Katalog (IK), for the inscriptions in the older fuþark which are neither from Denmark, Sweden or Norway nor bracteate inscriptions the sigla from Die südgermanischen Runeninschriften (Düwel, Nedoma, Oehrl 2020), for most of the other inscriptions the sigla in Samnordisk runtextdatabas (version 3.1).

Click here for a list of sigla.

Findspot

The place where the runic object was found. Usually the findspot forms the first part of the runic object’s commonly used name, e.g. "Alnmouth Stone", "Thorsberg Chape".

The findspot usually appears in the national language and in modern form (orthographically and grammatically). Different or older spellings of the place name are given in small print below the heading and can be found by using the search function.

If the findspot is unknown, this is marked as "Unbekannter Fundort/Unknown Findspot".

For the Runica Manuscripta the siglum of the manuscript and the present location/place of storage of the manuscript, e.g. the library, are provided.

For an exact geographical classification of the findspot the community, the county, the area and the country are added in brackets, e.g. "(Himlingøje Sogn, Præstø Amt, Sjælland, DK)" for the Himlingøje Bow-fibula.

  • Community: units at municipal level, e.g. in Sweden socknar or kommunar, in Norway kommuner, in Denmark sogne, in Germany Gemeinden, in the UK civil parishes etc.

  • County: subordinate (administrative) units, e.g. in Germany Landkreise, in the UK counties, in Sweden härader, in Denmark amter etc.

  • Area: units at a higher (administrative) level, e.g. Bundesländer in Germany, or larger regions or provinces, e.g. fylke in Norway. For findspots in some countries, historical provinces are named which are no longer in use as modern administrative units, e.g. in Sweden "Västmanland" or "Östergötland", or in the UK "Northumbria".

  • Country: As abbreviations for the countries the international vehicle codes are used.

Transliteration

Field which is provisionally used to collect transliterations from different sources with their respective transliteration principles.

The transliterations are taken from the following sources:

  • inscriptions in the older fuþark: database Runenprojekt Kiel (runenprojekt.uni-kiel.de)

  • inscriptions in the younger fuþąrk/fuþork from Denmark: database Danske Runeindskrifter (runer.ku.dk)

  • inscriptions in the younger fuþąrk/fuþork from other countries: Samnordisk runtextdatabas (https://www.nordiska.uu.se/forskn/samnord.htm)

  • Runica Manuscripta: Bauer, Alessia / Heizmann, Wilhelm. Runica manuscripta: Die nordische Tradition (in print). For more information on the transliteration process click here.

  • The transliterations of the inscriptions in the Anglo-Frisian fuþorc have been developed specifically for this field transliteration in the database. They represent work in progress and may be modified during the ongoing research process. The transliteration principles are basically the same as those used in the printed editions in preparation, i.e. Edition of the Old English Runic Inscriptions. Vol. 1: The Pre-Old English Inscriptions, ca. 400-600; Vol. 2: The Old English Inscriptions, ca. 600-1100. In particular for technical reasons, though, they may differ in certain points from the principles used there. A list of the transliteration principles used in the database is to be found here.

Translation

Field which is provisionally used to collect German and English translations from different sources.

The German translations are taken from the following sources:

  • Runica Manuscripta: Bauer, Alessia / Heizmann, Wilhelm. Runica manuscripta: Die nordische Tradition (in print).

  • inscriptions in the older fuþark: database Runenprojekt Kiel (runenprojekt.uni-kiel.de)

The English translations are taken from the following sources:

Fund - Angaben zum Objekt

Class of object

General classification of the object, e.g., "personal adornment" for brooches, belt buckles etc. or "weapon/weapon accessory" for spear-/lance-heads. A corresponding subordinate classification can be found under type of object.

Type of object

Subordinate classification of the object, e.g. "belt" for belt buckles or "close-quarters weapon" for spear-/lance-heads. A corresponding general classification can be found under class of object.

Possible values for the fields Class of object and Type of object are listed in the table below.

Class of object Type of object
bracteate
  • -
  • A-type
  • B-type
  • C-type
  • D-type
  • F-type
coin
  • -
edifice
  • -
  • tomb
  • church building
  • outbuilding
  • dwelling
inventory
  • ecclesiastical item
  • piece of furniture
manuscript
  • -
  • manuscript on parchment
  • paper manuscript
name tag
  • -
other object
  • -
  • amulet
  • mount/fitting
  • bone
  • plate
  • container
personal adornment
  • brooch
  • belt
  • clothing
  • other item of adornment
rune stick/rúnakefli
  • -
stone
  • -
  • picture stone
  • rock slab
  • rock face
  • grave slab
  • gravestone
  • runic cross
  • rune stone
  • stone block
tool/implement
  • -
  • fishing
  • wood processing
  • personal hygiene
  • reading/writing
  • metal processing
  • food consumption
  • textile processing
  • time measuring
  • weight measuring
  • leather processing
  • game-playing
weapon/weapon accessories
  • defensive weapon
  • long-distance weapon
  • close-quarters weapon
  • -

Object

The object on or in which the runic inscription is transmitted. Usually the object forms the second part of the runic object’s commonly used name, e.g. "Alnmouth Stone", "Thorsberg Chape".

As a rule, the object’s designation is given without distinguishing between different materials or composition of materials. Exceptions are made for those inscriptions on stone, plaster, wood etc., where the material is a part of the runic object’s commonly used name.

For the Runica Manuscripta the respective parts of the manuscript containing a runic entry, e.g. "leaf" or "wrapper", are given.

Preservation [object]

The object’s/manuscript’s state of preservation.

On the basis of the data provided here, a general assessment of the state of preservation of the inscribed object / the manuscript is rendered possible.

The following options exist:

good if surface and form are well preserved
impaired; good if the surface is impaired, but the form well preserved
good; fragmented if the surface is well preserved, but the form damaged
impaired; fragmented if the surface is impaired and the form damaged

For objects consisting of different fragments the information on the individual parts is combined, using "+", e.g. "impaired; fragmented+good".

If the object is lost or destroyed, the entry is "†".

Class of material

General classification of the material the object is made of, e.g. "stone" for rune stones or "wood" for spear-/lance-heads. For Runica Manuscripta, the options "parchment" and "paper" exist.

A corresponding subordinate classification can be found under material.

Material

Subordinate classification of the material the object is made of, e.g. "granite" for rune stones or "ash" for spear-/lance-heads. For Runica Manuscripta no further differentiation is made.

A corresponding general classification can be found under class of material.

If there are several possibilities, none of which seems unequivocally preferable, these may be listed with a slash between them, e.g. "yew/ash".

Material specifics

If possible, information about the material are further specified, e.g. by giving colour and grain size of stones (such as "grey, fine-grained"), or animal and kind of bones (such as "moose, long bone").

Measurements

The measurements of the object/runic inscription.

Usually three measurements are listed in a fixed order (length/height; width; thickness resp. number of pages for the Runica Manuscripta). The largest expansion/the highest number is taken as length/height.

All measurements are given in centimetres.

If measurements vary in different places of the object, they are given as "from … to …", e.g. "85-87; 62-75; 24-28".

If one of the measurements is unknown, this is indicated as "-" , e.g. "126; 63; -".

If none of the measurements is known, this is indicated as "-; -; -".

If the object is round, the symbol for diameter is used, e.g. "Ø10,3".

For inscriptions on rock slabs and rock faces, inscriptions in plaster and on wooden or stone walls, the measurements of the inscription (not the object) are provided, i.e. length and width with the addition "(Inschrift)", e.g. "120; 16-17 (Inschrift)"

If an object consists of several fragments, the measurements of the fragments are all listed, joined by "+", e.g. "80; 45; - + 62; 42; -".

It is possible to use "max." and "ca." in front of a number to qualify the measurements, e.g. "ca. 3; ca. 2; - ".

Completeness [object]

The state of completeness of the object / manuscript.

yes if the object/manuscript is complete
no if the object/manuscript is incomplete
if the object/manuscript is lost, destroyed etc.


External dating

The most reliable dating according to current research.

In most cases, this will be the object’s archaeological dating. If an archaeological dating is impossible (e.g. for large stone monuments or Runica Manuscripta), other dating criteria may be used.

Usually beginning and end of the period of dating are given.

The basis for the dating may be specified in the field method of dating.

The datings are taken from the following sources:

- inscriptions in the older fuþark: database Kieler Runenprojekt (runenprojekt.uni-kiel.de)

- inscriptions in the younger fuþąrk/fuþork from Denmark: database Danske Runeindskrifter (runer.ku.dk)

- inscriptions in the younger fuþąrk/fuþork from other countries: Samnordisk runtextdatabas (https://www.nordiska.uu.se/forskn/samnord.htm)

- Runica Manuscripta: Bauer, Alessia / Heizmann, Wilhelm. Runica manuscripta: Die nordische Tradition (in print).

For the datings of the inscriptions in the Anglo-Frisian fuþorc see the references in the resp. comments.

Method of dating

The method of dating used for the dating in the field external dating.

The following options exist:

arch. archaeological
arch./typ. archaeological typological
arch./dendro. archaeological dendrochronological
arch./strat. archaeological stratigraphical
numismat. numismatical (for coins)
palaeograph. palaeographical (for manuscripts)
iconograph. iconographical (for bracteates and objects with iconographic elements)
hist. historical
ling. linguistic
self-dating

If more than one method of dating is used, the options may be combined with "+", e.g. "arch.+iconograph.".

Dating specifics (ICO)

The periods for the iconographic dating of the rune stones (according to Anne-Sofie Gräslund). The following options exist:
Pr 1 (ca. 1010-1040)
Pr 2 (ca. 1020-1050)
Pr 3 (ca. 1045-1075)
Pr 4 (ca. 1070-1100)
Pr 5a (ca. 1100-1130)
Pr 5b (ca. 1100-1130)
Fp (ca. 1010-1050)

Context

The context in which the object resp. the runic entry was found.

For epigraphical runes, the archaeological context is mentioned, for Runica Manuscripta the contents of the whole manuscript.

For the archaeological context of the epigraphical runes, the following options exist: Bestattung (burial), Siedlung (settlement), Depot (depot), Einzelfund (single find), Handel (trade), Schenkung (donation) and "-", if the context is unknown.

For the Runica Manuscripta the options are: Historiographische Literatur und Rechtstexte (historiographical and legal texts), Metalinguistisches (collections of scripts and grammatical texts), Prosaliteratur bzw. Dichtung (prose resp. poetry), Religiöse Literatur und Mythologie (religious literature and mythology), Enzyklopädisches bzw. Aberglaube (encyclopaedic texts and superstition, e.g. texts on computistics, geography, medicine; magic, astrology, geomantic, esoteric and alchemistic topics).

Context specifics (RM)

The immediate context of the runic entry (manuscript text in which the runic entry is embedded or which is rendered in runes).

Find-year

The year or period of time in which the runic object was found or the runic inscription discovered.

If the inscription was discovered in a year after the detection of the object, both years are given (with the year of the inscription’s discovery in brackets), e.g. "1850(1880)". If the year in which the inscription was discovered is known, but not the year when the object was found, the entry would be, e.g., "-(1880)".

If different parts of an object were found in different years, the years are given in succession, joined by "+", e.g. "1880+1885+1924".

If contradictory information about the find-year is to be found in the sources, the alternatives are provided, separated by "/", e.g. "1848/1850".

If the find-year is unknown, the year of the first mention in a document (letter, museum list) or in a publication may be provided instead in the following form, e.g. "1854>F".

If it is impossible to provide any information on the find-year of object or inscription, this is indicated as "-". For the Runica Manuscripta, the option "-" is always used.

Fund - Angaben zur Inschrift

Rune row

The runic alphabet/rune row used in the inscription.

The following options exist: older fuþark, pre-fuþorc, fuþorc, younger fuþąrk/fuþork, medieval runes, calendar runes and runes from the post-reformation period.

If an object carries two inscriptions from different rune rows, both rune rows are combined with "+", e.g. "older fuþark+younger fuþąrk/fuþork" for the Skåäng Stone.

If it is disputable which rune row an inscription is to be attributed to, both rune rows are given, divided by a slash, e.g. z. B. "older fuþark/younger fuþąrk/fuþork" for the Roes stone.

If it is impossible to assign an inscription to a rune row, "-" is used.

Category of inscription

Category of the individual characters or of the whole inscription.

The following options exist:

run. exclusively runic
scripta mixta runes and other characters side by side in one word/one inscription or, for the Runica Manuscripta, in an immediate context
bi-script runes and other characters (usually Latin) side by side in two separate inscriptions on one object
rune row rune row or parts of it (fuþark order)
runic alphabet runic alphabet or parts of it (alphabetical order)
?run. rune-like characters or inscriptions with questionable runic character
cryptica cryptic runes

Two or more of these options may be combined with a "+", e.g "run.+?run." or "run.+Runenreihe".

Preservation [inscription]

The inscription’s/runic entry’s state of preservation.

On the basis of the data provided here, a general assessment of the state of preservation of the inscription / the runic manuscript entry is rendered possible.

The following options exist:

good if surface and form are well preserved
impaired; good if the surface is impaired, but the form well preserved
good; fragmented if the surface is well preserved, but the form damaged
impaired; fragmented if the surface is impaired and the form damaged

For objects consisting of different fragments the information on the single parts is added using "+", e.g. "impaired; fragmented+good".

If the inscription or the object (with the inscription) is lost or destroyed, the entry is "†".

Completeness [inscription]

The state of completeness of the inscription / runic entry.

The following options exist:

yes if the inscription/runic entry is complete
no if the inscription/runic entry is incomplete
if the inscription/runic entry is lost, destroyed etc.


Iconographic elements

Information about the co-occurrence of text, iconographic elements and other signs on the runic object or in the runic manuscript entry.

The following options exist:

yes if the object/the manuscript has pictures, signs, ornaments etc.
no if there are no iconographic elements.


Information on the present location

Depending on where and how the rune inscribed object is currently kept, different information can be found here.

Museum: If the object is kept in a museum or some other public institution, the name of the museum/institution (with place and country) is given here, e.g. "National Museum of Scotland (Edinburgh, GB)" or "Riksantikvarieämbetet (Stockholm, S)".

This information is supplemented by the inventory number, a link to a map showing the present location as well as the possibility to view all runic finds held at that museum/institution.

Via a link to the homepage of the museum or the institution, further information on how to contact the persons responsible in the museum/institution, how to get there and possibly also the opening hours, etc., can be obtained, infomation that may be required for an inspection or autopsy of the runic object.

If the object is in possession of one museum, but on display in another museum, both museums are named, e.g. "Historiska museet/Gotlands museum (Stockholm, S/Visby, S)". The additional information refers only to the museum in which the object is currently on display.

For the Runica Manuscripta the library is named in which the manuscript is kept, e.g. "Landsbókasafn Íslands (Reykjavík, IS)". Under inventory number the manuscript's siglum is given.

Private property: If an object is privately owned, no data is given.

†: If an object is lost or destroyed, no information on the present location can be given. If possible, information on the object's former location may be found in the comment.

in situ: If the rune inscribed object is still in the original findspot, this is indicated by "in situ". It is possible to show the position on the map and, in some cases, to find further information on the findspot as well as a secondary link, which provides instructions for finding the present location and, if necessary, contact details necessary for the inspection or autopsy of the runic object.

other locations: If the object/the inscription is neither in situ nor in a museum, but in a church, a churchyard, in the open air etc., this location is described in detail, e.g. „inside the church, Andreas Church, Andreas, Isle of Man, GB“. For inscriptions from D, DK, N, S, IS, FO and GB the information is given in the respective national language, for inscriptions from other countries in German or English. It is possible to show the position on the map and, in many cases, to find a secondary link, which provides instructions on how to find the present location and, if necessary, contact details necessary for the inspection or autopsy of the runic object, e.g. if the object is kept in a church.

unknown/not entered yet: This entry is used, if the object's present location is unknown or not yet entered in the database.

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